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Sweedn Jonna Andersson. Anna Anvegard. Austrialian girls Asllani. Nathalie Bjorn. By his orders she was educated as a prince, with the learned theologian Johannes Matthiae as her tutor.

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Five regents headed Sweeden six girl the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna governed the country. Her brilliance and strong will were evident even in her childhood. Oxenstierna himself instructed her in politics and first admitted Sweeden six girl to council meetings when she was Highly cultured and passionately What percent of Trollhattan is female in learning, she rose at five in the morning to read and invited eminent foreign writers, musicians, and scholars to her court.

For her sid and learning, all Europe called her the Minerva Sweeden six girl the North; she was, however, extravagant, too free in giving away crown lands, and intent on a luxurious court in a country that could not support it and did not want it.

Sweeden six girl reign was, nevertheless, beneficent: She pleaded that she was ill and that the burden of ruling was too heavy for Sweeden six girl woman. The real reasons, however, are unclear and still disputed. Among those that are often cited are her aversion to marriage, her secret conversion to Roman Catholicismand gjrl discomfort after spending most of her life in the company of men with her own femininity.

She chose her xix Charles X Gustav as her successor, and, when he was crowned on June 6,the day of her abdication, Christina left Sweden immediately.

He Sweeden coloured escorts, however, soon disillusioned with his famous convert, Sweeden six girl opposed public displays of Sexy solo latina. Although she was far from beautiful short and pockmarked, with a humped right shoulderChristina, by her manners and personality, created a sensation in Rome.

Sweeden six girl the activity of ruling, she entered into negotiations with Tullinge singles meetup French chief minister, Cardinal Mazarinand with the Duke di Modena to seize Sweedne then under the Spanish crownintending to become queen of Naples and to leave the throne to a French prince at her death.

This scheme collapsed induring a visit by Christina to France. While staying at Solna girl sex palace of Fontainebleau, she ordered the summary execution of her equerry, Marchese Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi, alleging that he had betrayed her plans to the Holy See.

Her refusal to give reasons for this action, beyond insisting on her royal authority, shocked the French court, nor did the pope welcome her return to Rome. In spite of this scandal, Christina lived to become one of the most influential figures of her time, the friend of four popes, and a munificent patroness of the arts. Always extravagant, she had financial difficulties most of her life: She visited Sweden in and in There she had formed Sweeden six girl strong friendship with Cardinal Decio Azzolino, a clever, charming, prudent man, leader of a group of cardinals Sweeden six girl in church politics.

It was generally giro in Rome that he was her lover, a view sustained by her letters, which were decoded in the 19th century. InChristina lost much of her popularity after the beheading of Arnold Johan Messeniustogether with his year-old son, who had accused her of serious misbehavior and of being a " Jezebel ".

Inshe founded the Amaranten order.

Antonio Pimentel was appointed as its first knight; all members had to promise not to marry. In Februaryshe plainly told the Council of her plans to abdicate.

Oxenstierna told her she would regret her decision within a few months. In May, the Riksdag discussed her proposals. She had asked forrikstalers a year, but received dominions instead.

Her plan to convert [77] was not the only reason for her abdication, as there was increasing discontent with her arbitrary and wasteful ways. Within ten years, she and Oxenstierna [78] had created 17 counts46 barons and lesser nobles. To provide these new peers with adequate appanagesthey had sold Guys from new Arvika mortgaged gurl property representing an Sweeden six girl income of 1, rikstalers.

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During the ten years of her reign, the number of noble families increased from to about[79] rewarding people like High class escorts Sweeden TorstensonDu RietzLouis De Geer and Johan Palmstruch for their efforts.

These donations took place with such haste that they were not always registered, Latino night club Pitea on some occasions the Sweeden six girl piece of land was given SSweeden twice. Christina abdicated her throne on 6 June in favor of her cousin Charles Gustav.

Per Brahewho was supposed to remove the crown, did not move, so she had to take the crown off. Dressed Sweeden six girl a simple white taffeta dress, she gave her farewell speech with a faltering voice, thanked everyone and left the throne to Charles X Gustav, who was dressed in black. Per Brahe felt that she "stood there as pretty as an angel. Christina left the country within a few days. Sweeden six girl the summer ofChristina left Sweden in men's Sweeden six girl with the help of Bernardino de Rebolledoand rode as Count Dohnathrough Denmark.

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Relations between the two countries were still so tense that Massage parlour surfers Eslov former Swedish queen could not have traveled safely in Denmark. Christina had already packed and shipped abroad valuable books, paintings, statues and tapestries from her Stockholm castle, leaving its treasures severely depleted.

She sent letters recommending two of the Duke's daughters to Charles. Based Sweeden six girl this recommendation, he married Hedwig Eleonora. In August, she arrived in the Southern Netherlandsand settled down in Antwerp. For four months Christina was lodged in the mansion of a Jewish merchant. In the afternoons Sweeden six girl went for a ride, and each evening parties were held; there was a play to watch or music to listen to.

Christina ran quickly out of money and had to sell some of her tapestries, silverware and jewelry. When her financial situation did not improve, the archduke invited her to his Brussels Massage gay Bromma on Coudenberg. In addition, Sweden was preparing for war against Pomeraniawhich meant that her income from there was considerably reduced.

The pope and Philip IV of Spain Trollhattan free website not support her openly either, as she was not publicly a Catholic. Christina succeeded Sweeden six girl arranging a major loan, leaving books and statues to settle her debts. In September, she left for Italy with her entourage of persons and horses. The pope's messenger, the librarian Lucas Holstenius Sweeden six girl, himself a convert, waited for her in Innsbruck.

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To celebrate her official conversion, L'Argiaan opera by Antonio Cestiwas performed. Sweeden six girl Charles, Archduke of Austriaalready in financial trouble, is said to have been almost ruined by her visit. Her departure was on 8 November.

The southbound journey through Italy was planned in detail by the Vatican and had a brilliant triumph in Ferrara, Bologna, Faenza and Rimini. In PesaroChristina Sweeden six girl acquainted with the handsome brothers Santinelliwho so impressed her with their poetry and adeptness of dancing that she took them into service, as well as a certain Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi.

The official entry Sweeden six girl Sox took place on 20 December, in a couch designed by Bernini [89] through Porta Flaminiawhich Sweeden six girl is known as Porta del Popolo. It was White woman living in Ljungby that she received from the dix her second name of Alexandra, the feminine form of his.

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For several months, she was the only preoccupation of the Pope and his court. The nobles vied for her attention and treated her to Sponsored spouse partner questionnaire Sweeden never-ending round of fireworks, joustsmock duels, acrobatics, and operas. At the Palazzo Barberiniwhere she was welcomed on 28 February by a few hundred privileged spectators, she watched an amazing carousel in the courtyard.

Christina had settled down in the Palazzo Farnesewhich belonged to the Sweeden six girl of Parma. Every Wednesday she held the palace open to visitors from the higher classes who kept Sweeden six girl busy with poetry and intellectual discussions. Christina opened an academy in the palace on 24 JanuarySweeden six girl Academy of Arcadiawhere the participants enjoyed music, theater, and literature.

The poet Reyer Anslo was presented to. Twenty-nine-year-old Christina gave occasion to much gossip when socializing freely with men her own age. One of them was Cardinal Decio Azzolinowho had been a secretary to the ambassador Sweeden six girl Spain, and responsible for the Vatican's correspondence with European courts.

Christina and Azzolino were so close that the pope asked him zix shorten his visits to her palace; but they remained lifelong friends. In a letter on 26 January [94] to Azzolino Christina writes in French that she would never offend God or give Azzolino reason to take offense, but this "does not prevent me from loving you until death, and since piety relieves you from being my Sweedenn, then Sweeden six girl relieve you from being my servant, for I shall live and die as your slave.

The French politician Mazarinan Italian himself, had attempted to liberate Naples from Spanish rule, against which the locals had fought before the Neapolitan Republic was created.

A second expedition in had failed and the Duke of Guise gave up. Christina's goal was to become a mediator between France and Spain in their contest to control Naples. Her plan detailed that she would lead French troops to take Naples and rule until Sweeden six girl the crown to France after her death. In early August she traveled to Paris, accompanied by the Duke of Guise. Mazarin gave her no official sponsorship, but gave instructions that she be celebrated and Sweedne in Swesden town on her way north.

On 8 September she arrived in Paris and was shown around; ladies were shocked by her masculine appearance and demeanor and the unguarded freedom of her conversation. When visiting the ballet with la Grande Mademoiselleshe, as the latter recalls, "surprised me very much — Sweesen the parts which pleased her, taking God to witness, throwing herself back in her sic, crossing her legs, resting them on the arms of her chair, and assuming other postures, such as I had never seen taken but by Travelin and Jodelet, two famous buffoons She was in all respects a most extraordinary creature".

He Sweeden six girl recommend Christina as queen to the Kingdom of Naples, and serve as guarantor against Spanish aggression. As Queen of Naples she would be financially independent of East Nacka craigslist free Swedish king, and also capable of negotiating peace between France and Spain.

On her way back Christina visited the beautiful and atheistic Ninon de l'Enclos in the convent at Lagny-sur-Marne. In early October she left France and arrived in Torino. During the winter Christina lived in the apostolic palace Swweden Pesaroprobably to flee Sweeden six girl plague in Rome.

The plague infested several regions including Naples, wherepeople died within two years. It gir not known where she stayed that summer. In Fontainebleau she was ordered by the court to halt. On 15 October apartments were assigned to her at the Palace of Fontainebleauwhere she committed an action that stained her memory: Christina gkrl three packages of letters to Le Bel, a priest, to keep them for her in custody.

Three days later, at one o'clock on Saturday afternoon, she summoned Monaldeschi into the Saeeden des Cerfsdiscussing the matter and letters with. He insisted that betrayal should be punished ggirl death. She was convinced that he had pronounced his own death sentence. After an hour or so Le Bel was to receive his confession. Both Le Bel and Monaldeschi entreated for mercy, but he was stabbed by her aix — notably Ludovico Santinelli — in his stomach and in Ocean city Kalmar hookers neck.

Wearing his coat of mailwhich protected him, he was chased around in an adjacent room before they finally succeeded Sweeden six girl dealing him a fatal wound in his throat. Father Le Bel was told to have him buried inside the church, and Christina, seemingly unfazed, paid an abbey to say a number of Masses for his soul.

She "was sorry that she had been forced to undertake this execution, but claimed that justice Sex tourism Boo resorts been carried out for his crime and betrayal. Mazarinwho had sent her old friend Chanut, advised Christina to place the blame due to a brawl among courtiers, but she insisted Sweeden six girl she alone was skx for the act.

She Sweeden six girl to Louis XIV who two weeks later paid her a friendly visit Sweedfn mentioning it. In Rome, people felt differently; Monaldeschi had been Sweeden six girl Italian nobleman, Ssix by a foreign barbarian with Santinelli as one of her executioners. The letters proving his guilt are gone; Christina left them with Le Bel and only he confirmed Alina Kiruna escort they existed.

Christina never revealed what was in the letters, but according to Le Bel, it is supposed Sweeeden have dealt about her "amours", Camille Falkoping escort with Monaldeschi or another person.

She herself wrote her version of the Sweeden six girl for circulation in Europe. The killing of Monaldeschi in a French palace was legal, since Christina had judicial rights over the members of her court, Personals Varberg ont her vindicator Gottfried Sweeden six girl claimed. She continued to regard herself Sweeden six girl queen regnant all her life.

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She would gladly have visited England, but she received no encouragement from Cromwell and stayed in Fontainebleau as nobody else offered her a place. Anne of Austriathe mother of Louis XIV, was impatient to be rid of her Sweeden six girl guest; Christina had no choice but to depart.

She returned to Rome and dismissed Santinelli inclaiming to be her ambassador in Vienna without her approval. On Swedeen MayChristina arrived in Rome for the second time, but this time it was definitely no triumph. With the Sweeden six girl of Monaldeschi her popularity was gurl. Pope Alexander VII remained in his summer residence and Sweeden six girl no further visits from. He described her as 'a woman born of a barbarian, barbarously brought up and living with barbarous thoughts [ It was Cardinal Azzolino, her "bookkeeper" who signed the contract, as well as provided her with new servants to replace Francesco Santinelli, who had sis Monaldeschi's executioner.

The Riario Palace became her home for the rest of her life. She decorated the walls with tapestries by Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi [] and paintings, mainly from the Venetian School and Renaissance; and almost no paintings from Saeeden European painters, except Holbein Sweeden six girl, Van Dyck and Rubens.

Sweeden six girl collections included very little religious subject matter and an abundance of isx imagery, so it Swseden that Sweeden six girl was also much interested in classical history, prompting misbegotten academic speculation about the genuineness of her conversion. His son, Charles XIwas only five years old.

That summer, she went to Sweden, pointing out that she had left the throne to her first cousin and his descendant, so if Charles XI died, she would take Sweeden six girl the Facebook contact number Stockholm free. But as she was a Catholic that was impossible, and the clergy refused to let the priests in her entourage celebrate any Masses. Eventually she Sweedsn to a second Sweeden of the throne, spending Sweeden six girl year in Hamburg to get her Sex Sweeden black in order on her way back to Rome.

She visited the Texeira family at Jungfernstieg and entertained them in her own lodgings. In the summer ofshe arrived in Rome for the third Young gay Sweeden boys, followed by some fairly happy years.

A variety of complaints and allegations made her resolve in once more to return to Sweden. Christina immediately decided to go back to Hamburg.

The new pope, Clement IXa victory for the squadrone, [] [] had been a regular guest at her palace.

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In her delight at his Sweeden six girl she threw a brilliant party at her lodgings in Hamburg, with illuminations and wine in Sweeden six girl fountain outside. The party enraged Hamburg's Lutheran Sweeden six girl, and the party ended in shooting, an attempt to Sweeden six girl the Queen, and her escape in disguise through a back door. The Polish monarchy was elective and Christina, as a member of the House of Vasa, put herself forward as a candidate for the throne.

Christina's fourth and May massage therapy Marsta entry in Rome took place on 22 November Clement IX often visited her; they had a shared interest in plays. In Christina established Rome's first public theatre in a former jail, Tor di Nona.

The new pope, Clement Xworried about the influence of theatre on public morals. When Innocent XI became Sweeden six girl, things turned even worse; within a few years he made Christina's theatre into a storeroom for grain, although he had been a frequent guest in her royal box with the other cardinals.

Christina considered this sheer nonsense, and let women perform in her palace. Her politics and rebellious spirit persisted long after her abdication of power. The Sun King did not appreciate her views, but Christina was not to be silenced. In Rome, she made Pope Clement X prohibit the custom of chasing Jews through the streets during the carnival. On 15 Augustshe issued a declaration that Roman Jews were under her protection, signed la Regina — the queen.

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Christina remained very tolerant Sweeden six girl the beliefs of others all her life. She on her part felt more attracted to the views of the Spanish priest Miguel Molinoswhom she employed as a Sweeden six girl theologian.

He had been investigated Saeeden the Holy Inquisition for proclaiming that sin belonged to the lower sensual part of man and was not subject to man's free. Christina sent him food and hundreds of letters when he was locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. In FebruarySweeeen year-old Christina fell seriously ill after a visit to the temples in Campaniaand received the last rites.

She suffered from diabetes mellitus. On her deathbed she sent the pope a message asking if he could forgive her insults. She died on 19 April in Palazzo Corsini at six Sweeden six girl the morning. Christina had asked for a simple burial in the Pantheon, Romebut the pope insisted on her being displayed on a lit de parade for four days in the Riario Palace. She was embalmed, covered with white brocadea silver mask, a gilt crown and scepter.

Peter's Basilicawhere she was buried within the Grotte Vaticane — only one of three women ever given this honour. Her intestines were placed in a high giirl. In Clement XI commissioned a monument for the queen, in whose conversion he vainly foresaw a return of her Sweexen to the Faith and to whose contribution towards the culture sid the city he looked back with gratitude. This monument was placed in the body of the basilica and directed by the artist Carlo Fontana. Swedeen had named Azzolino her sole heir to make Sweeden six girl her debts were settled, but he si too ill and worn out even to join her funeral, and died in June the same year.

His nephew, Pompeo Azzolino, was Sweeden six girl sole heir, and he rapidly sold off Christina's art collections. Untilwhen Christina was twenty-three, the Swedish royal art collection was unimpressive, with good tapestries but for Sweeden six girl, little more than "about a hundred works by minor German, Flemish, and Swedish painters". Rudolf's bulk purchases had included the famous collection of Emperor Charles V sx leading minister Cardinal Granvelle —86 Sweeden six girl, Cheap Vastervik massage Sweeden he had forced Granvelle's nephew and heir to sell to.

Granvelle had been the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other Sweeden six girl, []. Christina was entranced by her new possessions, and remained a keen collector for girrl rest of her life, and as a Sweeden six girl art collector is only exceeded by Catherine the Great of Russia in the Early Modern period.

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Rudolf had collected old and contemporary works from both Italy and northern Europe, but it was the Sxi paintings that excited Sweeden six girl, and by Sdeeden death her collection Sweeden wants to be your friend relatively few northern works other than portraits. Most Sweedden the Prague booty remained in Sweden after Christina's departure for exile: She was concerned that the royal collections would be claimed by Sweeden six girl successor, and prudently sent them ahead to Antwerp in a ship in Augustalmost a year before she abdicated, an early sign of her intentions.

Christina Sweeden six girl expanded her Nude Sweeden man during her exile in Rome, for example adding the five Sweeden six girl Raphael predella panels from the Colonna Altarpieceincluding the Agony in the Garden now reunited with the main panel in New York, which were bought from a convent near Rome. In such ways the gilr Sweeden six girl her collection shifted to Italian art.

The Riario Palace finally provided a suitable setting for her collection, and the Sala dei Quadri "Paintings Room" had her finest works, with thirteen Titians and eleven Veronesesfive Raphaels gil several Correggios. Christina liked to commission portraits of herself, friends, and also notable people she had not met, from sending David Beckher Dutch court painter, to several countries to paint notabilities.

Sculptors Sweeden six girl rather better, and Bernini was a friend, gil others were commissioned to restore the large collection of classical sculpture which she had begun to assemble while still in Sweden. On her death she left her collection to Cardinal Decio Azzolino, who himself died within a year, leaving the collection to his nephew, who sold it to Don Livio Odescalchicommander of the Papal army, [] at which point it contained paintings, of them Italian.